Designing an object as a system gives an understanding of the connection of the object with the external environment.
In the process of complex design the student must master (and the practitioner is free to use):
method of analysis – typological, functional, economic, visual; by the method of synthesis – methods of layout of the integral system of the architectural object and means of harmonization of the design object (house, complex or district of the city) with the environment.
Comprehensive design method
The complex method of functional, constructive and artistic design is a universal method that combines science and practice. It allows you to organically combine all activities that affect the final product – an architectural project, and, ultimately, the object of design – the spatial environment of human life.
Given the differentiation of individual fields of science and technology, the method of integrated design provides integration, close connection of individual technical and scientific knowledge, reflects the decisive trends in architecture, technology and science, new materials and structures, philosophy and ideology.
The principle of complex design is considered in two aspects: first, as a theoretical basis of the creative method of the architect, which involves the simultaneous development of urban, functional-planning, design, economic and architectural-artistic issues in their close relationship and , secondly, as practical basis of design, which solves the problem of connecting architectural design with scientific and technical knowledge.
Integrated design involves:
a) creative application of knowledge about man, nature and society in their deep interpenetration; b) combining the theory and typology of architecture with design; c) the relationship with the architectural design of design activities, building physics, geodesy, placement of engineering networks, planning and economics of design and construction; d) use of data from sociology, climatology, hygiene, psychophysiology and urban ecology.
Complex design as an information method
The process of complex design is considered as a system that regulates its activities through the exchange of information between representatives of different specialties and architects. The information method in this activity uses a system of direct and feedback.
Direct connections imply a connection between an architect and a representative of a related specialty (an architectural solution is its engineering development).
Feedback (constructive, technological, economic opportunities and conditions – architectural solution) corrects the architectural design in the direction of its greatest optimization, makes the architectural solution more organic, so that it correlates with existing construction technologies, economic conditions and more.
Complex design through this method solves the problem of achieving mutual understanding between its participants, makes the participant information that has a certain purposeful content.
Designing an object as a system. Method of structural analysis
The word system translated from Greek means a connection, or whole, composed of parts. The system is a set of elements which are among themselves in communications and relations forming integrity. Under the system means a connected whole, formed by the interdependence and consistency of its constituent parts and elements, ie structure.
The structure acts as a characteristic of the system. The structure is a set of stable connections of the object, providing its integrity and identity to itself, ie preservation of the basic properties at various external influences. (More about this in the discipline “Systems Theory and Architecture” studied in the 5th year).
The method of structural analysis used in science allows us to consider any object as a system that has a set of common properties, expressed in the structure that characterizes this system. The approach to the architectural object as a system allows us to assess the mechanism of interaction of components in a particular system, the value of individual requirements that determine the decision in connection with the understanding of the whole, and guarantees versatility and completeness of the object in interaction with the environment.
Many forces interact in the formation of an architectural work – constant and variable factors, the role of which is not unambiguous: urban, climatic, functional-planning, structural and technical conditions and architectural-artistic, economic and operational requirements.
The complex method involves a structural analysis of the system at each stage of its development. The architect, working on the project, analyzes the most important factors, considers them in the relationships in which they are related, and their interaction in a particular object reveals the contradictions of the requirements, synthesizes them and subdues the construction of the guiding idea.
The ultimate goal of the process is to create an integral composition of the projected object.
Qualitative certainty of the project, its composition is 123helpme.me revealed in this form of content organization, in the ratio of object and environment, in the common laws of construction of the object, expressing the relationships and unity of all formative factors.
All this is the basis for developing methodological positions of design. These items include:
unity of content and form of the design object (house, city, etc.); interaction of external and internal; functional expediency; the role of constructive design; economic factor; composition as a whole; artistic means and patterns; proportionality; architectural image.
Content and form of the object
The design method aims to reveal the content of the object as a set of purpose of the building and inextricably linked with it ideological and figurative requirements.
The new content of design objects reflects the specific social, cultural and aesthetic needs of society, causes the emergence of a new form that affects the content and contributes to its development.
The ratio of form and content in the composition of an architectural object is in the unity of structure and function. The function organizes the structure, the structure determines the function.
The internal construction reveals the originality of this type of building, its specific features. The organization of the three-dimensional structure is a qualitative criterion of the internal construction of the object.
The connections that form the structure in an architectural object can be functional, dependent on a specific activity and expressed as communications (pedestrian, transport). Compositional connections will usually be visual. They are expressed as direct visual contact or as a sequence of visual frames that form a spatio-temporal chain of impressions of the object, which then forms a single synthesizing artistic image.
The external form of the object expresses the internal structure and is created in conjunction with other objects of the spatial environment in which the object is located.
The specific orientation of the object to the surrounding space acts as a qualitative originality of its construction.
Interaction of external and internal
It should be borne in mind that the internal construction is directly related to the external structure and is its function, both in functional and compositional aspects.
Designing an object as a system gives an understanding of the connection of the object with the external environment. The urban planning approach defines each architectural object as a system that is part of another, more complex spatial system; in relation to it, the first system acts as a component. Thus, a residential building is a system in relation to its components – sections and apartments, at the same time it is one of the components of the spatial system – a group of houses or an ensemble. External and internal structure are always in unity and interpenetration.
The choice of interrelations of external and internal space influences the architectural and constructive design of the project, the compositional reception as a whole.
The formation of the interior in interaction with the external natural environment increases the comfortable – functional and aesthetic qualities of the interior solution. Opening public and residential buildings to the environment serves as a means of artistic, emotional and psychophysiological influence.
It is necessary to take into account the sequence of aesthetic impressions that arise when moving outside the building and inside it. “The perfection of the organization of internal movement and will be the main biological quality of the organism we create, in other words, the degree of connection between the completed structure and its purpose” [Le Corbusier, 110].
Thus, the subject of architectural design is the interacting system of the architectural object and the environment.
The functional method reveals the internal connections due to the purpose of the building, the technological processes occurring in this material shell. The principle of expediency, “benefit” of an architectural work is revealed in the desire to best meet the material and spiritual needs of society at a reasonable minimum cost. The functional requirements are influenced by the level of development of technology and economy, features of life and culture, climatic and topographic conditions.
Starting the design, the architect determines the mandatory (regular) and optional (desired) functional relationships. This purpose is the method of compiling functional-operational schemes for recording information about the state of the object, using the apparatus of graph theory [124, p. 11 – 21].
Development of spatial planning structure, composition is wider than the functional solution. The functional diagram cannot be used as a real aesthetic structure. “Form is determined by function, but surpasses it, because the artistic imagination can accompany it without harm to it” [F. -L. Wright, 184, p. 245].
It is essential for the method of complex design to introduce the concept of “behavior” of the object, which determines the interaction of components within the system over time. The processes occurring in the object show the dynamics, however, the spatial structure of the building gives them a static expression. Overcoming this contradiction is reflected in the idea of a flexible spatial solution for both residential and public buildings. “One functioning is not enough for art – at the same time … there will be no one who would claim that the beautiful is allowed to function poorly” [G. B. Barkhin, 62, p. 37].
The role of constructive design
The very formulation of the task of architecture as the creation of a material environment by artificially allocating a certain part of space as a material shell of volume shows the need for fusion of architectural-spatial and constructive ideas and the role given to technology as a means of creating an architectural structure.